Used in applications with nuts and bolts. The flat washer provides a greater bearing surface which helps prevent a nut or bolt head from tearing through the material. Flat washers are commonly used in decks and fence building. The called out size is the inner diameter of the washer.
Flat washers are ideal for increasing the load bearing surface under a fastener’s head by distributing the load through the washer
These washers help to prevent bolts or nuts from pulling through a surface